Skip navigation


A Life of Strife and Struggle

King Laloriaran Dynar

Notes for the personal memoirs of King Laloriaran Dynar, "Last King of the Ayleids"

Structure: ten chapters as traditional, one for each of the Ten Ancestors

Chapter One: Struggles of the Late Ayleid Period (263-331)
— My father humiliated by the Empress
— Nenalata as a vassal-state to the Empire of Cyrodiil
— Wrenching transition to a slave-less economy
— Forced adoption of Alessia's Eight Divines
— I don the Crown of Nenalata
— Rising sense of futility and doom

Chapter Two: Alessian Order, Ayleid Disorder (332-371)
— Coup d'Etat in the Imperial City
— I swear fealty to the Emperor
— Theocracy in Cyrodiil
— The Ayleid Pogrom
— The vassal-states dwindle
— Nenalata stands alone

Chapter Three: Tears for Lost Nenalata (372-374)
— Ultimatum from the Emperor
— Debate with the Intransigents
— Last hours in Nenalata
— The turbulent trek from Cyrodiil
— News of the massacre of the Intransigents
— Nibbled to death by Goblins

Chapter Four: Refugees on the Bjoulsae (375-452)
— Welcomed by the Direnni
— Displacing the Orcs, founding a city
— Bisnensel-by-the-Lake
— Detente with the Bretons, armistice with the Orcs
— Disturbing news from Cyrodiil

Chapter Five: Menace of the Primeval Seekers (453-460)
— The pernicious cult of Hermaeus Mora
— Strange rites, persistent visions
— High Priest Uluscant asserts his authority
— Murder in the night
— Flight of the royal family

Chapter Six: Sanctuary Among the Direnni (461-477)
— Balfiera Island
— Ryain, Aiden, and Raven
— At War with Skyrim
— Tactician and Strategist: I find my true calling
— Hoag Merkiller defeated

Chapter Seven: Approach of the Alessian Horde (478-479)
— Rumbles from the Heartland
— We find Breton converts to Alessianism
— Scourging of the missionaries
— The Alessian Horde marches west
— The fall of Craglorn

Chapter Eight: The Mustering of High Rock (480-481)
— Envoy to the Vassal Kings
— Aiden reluctantly signs the Rights Charter
— Making legionaries out of farmhands
— The Horde swarms into High Rock
— Atrocities of the Alessians

Chapter Nine: The Battle of Glenumbria Moors (482)
— Opening skirmishes
— We present the lure
— Faolchu takes the bait
— Charge of the hidden knights
— Conjured creatures of Corvus and Calani
— Rout of the Alessians

Chapter Ten: Return to Nenalata (482-484)
— Pursuit of the Alessian Horde
— Extermination in Craglorn
— The Maruhkati Martyrs
— Return to the Heartland
— Lured to Nenalata
— Molag Bal's Insidious Trap
— Prisoner in Coldharbour

Plenty of time in here. Just hope they don't take away my writing materials. Could even Dremora be that cruel?

Remnants of Cyrod


When Alessia's rebellion sent the Heartland lords fleeing from their manses, they took their knowledge with them.

While some fled to the fens of Black Marsh and others to the northern reaches, most flew to Valenwood. After many years amongst the Bosmer, they amassed a storehouse of information.

Realizing a need to preserve our knowledge against the ages, they excavated a cavern east of the mighty Strid. There, in its alabaster depths, they carved great halls and sealed them against the ravages of erosion and time.

They summoned our greatest architect to do these things, and a great enchantment was placed upon its walls to stave off putrefaction and decay.

The ruins would stand until the White-Gold Tower fell to dust and bone in the ashes of old Cyrod. They would deliver our memory for generations to come, and seal us as the immortal masters of Tamriel, itself.

Heart of Valenwood

Beredalmo the Signifier

Heart of Valenwood, heart of the living forest, is too easily mistaken for an object, a single item, that can be claimed and manipulated. It is true that in the heart of the forest there is a magnificent tree, through which courses the metaphorical lifeblood of Valenwood. But to say that the tree is the heart is to vastly limit one's understanding of the Heart.

In truth, the Heart is more akin to the forest's soul. The magnificent tree is just the physical symbol of that soul, but like a soul in the body, the Heart is not in one place in the body, but suffused through the entire thing.

Still, it's been apparent to anyone who wished to look that the ancient Ayleid site of Hectahame holds immense power, far outstripping the rest of Valenwood. As a consequence, that particular location is often referred to in older texts as the "Heart of Valenwood" and has become the target of numerous plots to harness that power for purposes both good and ill.

One of the earliest of these plots occured while the Ayleids first came to Valenwood. A necromancer (his cursed name long lost to history) invaded Valenwood with an undead army, and perverted the life-giving power of the heart to raise up a formidable force of undead Ayleid spirits. The Ayleids fought a long and protracted battle to defeat the army, but in the end they were unable to defeat the army, only contain it.

Using welkynd stones, the Ayleids created powerful necromantic wards to seal off Hectahame, and the once great city became a prison for the army that had sought to conquer it. The undead were returned to the ground and trapped there. None who have attempted to break the wards have managed, and it is speculated that only an object that could cancel magic itself could undo the Ayleids' incredible handiwork.
But it is because of the powerful wards on Hectahame that the Heart of Valenwood is little understood and rarely spoken of. The Wood Elves view Hectahame with a mix of superstition and awe, fearing the ancient past and revering the life-giving power that seems to emanate from within.

It is said that the last Wood Elf to enter Hectahame and behold the heart was a Silvenar from over two hundred years ago. But even accounts from that time suggest that he was viewed as mad by his contemporaries.

Ayleid Cities of Valenwood


An Excerpt

Written by the Esteemed Historian Homfrey at the University of Gwylim, 2E 455

Being a Survey of the Triumphant Settlement of the Heartland High Elves in the Southern Regions

…At this point, we should mention the remarkable cities of Ceyatatar, and the Ayleid settlement beneath what is now modern Bravil. These cities, along with the Valenwood cities of Haven, Woodhearth, and Silvenar, all flourished as a result of increased trade after the establishment of the great White-Gold Tower in what is now the heart of Cyrodiil.

Of note in particular is the university and libraries at nearby Elden Root. The Ayleids there built their city in and around what is called the Elden Tree or the First Tree, believed by many to be the tree that seeded all of Valenwood.

Both Haven and Woodhearth were destroyed utterly by the sieging Maormer, who cared little for the advanced and enlightened ways of the Valenwood Aldmer. Marching inland, they plundered not only the Elden Root enclave, but also the Great Tree itself. What villainous tribe would injure and pillage such magnificence?

It is possible that the Maormer had broken the Aldmer traditions of racial purity and intermingled with indigenous, bestial tribes of Pyandonea. This would explain their savagery and lack of regard for the greatness of mainland Elven culture.

Bisnensel: Our Ancient Roots

Scholasticus Incognitus

Hyrma MORA pado ADA oia NAGAIA aba AGEA cava APOCRA dena GORIA gandra ARCAN

As everyone in our society knows, the roots of our order are ancient and deep—for are we not the Primeval Seekers? Having spent a season researching ancient manuscripts on Balfiera Island and in the Daggerfall Mages Guild, I can finally provide some details about our hallowed halls of meeting—put some meat on the bones, as it were.

I can now reveal that the original name of our private Ayleid sanctum beneath Halcyon Lake was "Bisnensel," which meant "New Water Halls" in the tongue of the Wild Elves. It was built by a clan of Ayleids who fled the anti-Elven pogroms in Cyrodiil during the early First Era, after the slave uprising of the so-called "saint" Alessia. The clan that built Bisnensel came from the Heartland city of Nenalata, which like most Ayleid habitations was built partly above and partly beneath the surface of the land. This plan was copied in miniature when the refugee Elves built Bisnensel, though now only the subterranean halls survive intact.

The ruler of this Elven clan was named Laloriaran Dynar, though he is far better known by the soubriquet "Last King of the Ayleids." He was a notable tactician and general, and you have almost certainly heard of him in connection with the great High Rock victory of the Battle of Glenumbria Moors, in which the invading Alessian horde was broken and turned back to Cyrodiil.

Possibly the most fascinating fact turned up in my researches, at least for us of the Primeval Seekers, is that the use of this site for the worship of Hermaeus Mora actually began many thousands of years ago when it was still occupied by the Ayleids! The leader of this effort was a Wild Elf scholar known as High Priest Uluscant, who established a congregation in Bisnensel that attracted many of the learned and most influential people in the community. As their numbers became more numerous, on their behalf Uluscant quite reasonably requested more of a say in municipal affairs, a request that was unfairly denied by "King" Dynar. The ruler had no interest in sharing power with a non-military order of scholars, whom he foolishly thought he could insult with impunity.

Well, this Dynar soon learned that the servants of Hermaeus Mora are not so easily shunted aside! Within a few months of his arrogant rebuff, this "Last King of the Ayleids" was deposed. He and his family fled to Balfiera, where he begged refuge of the Direnni, whom he served for the rest of his days as a sort of trained war-dog.

As history teaches us, the Primeval Seekers always win out in time. It's as the ancient analects say: if knowledge is power, then forbidden knowledge is ultimate power! "For the desire to know is beyond reckoning, and in recompense, whatever price is named shall be met."


Magic from the Sky

Irlav Jarol

The ancient Ayleids believed that Nirn was composed of four basic elements -- earth, water, air, and light -- and of these four elements, they believed the most sublime form of light was star light. The stars are our links to the plane of Aetherius, the source of all magical power, and therefore, light from the stars is the most potent and exalted of all magical powers.

From time to time, fragments of Aetherius fall from the heavens. The people know these fragments as 'shooting stars', and from time to time, such Aetherial fragments are found on Nirn. The most common varieties are known as 'meteoric iron'; this metal is prized by armorers and enchanters for its properties in the forging of enchanted weapons and armors. This meteoric iron is also the primary component in 'Ayleid Wells,' ancient enchanted artifacts found throughout Cyrodiil.

Another, rarer form of Aetherial fragment is called 'meteroic glass'. It is from such fragments that other rare Ayleid enchanted artifacts are crafted -- Welkynd Stones and Varla Stones.

Ayleids Wells are scattered across Cyrodiil's landscape. Their siting is a mystery; they are not associated with any known Ayleid cities or settlements. It is presumed that, in some manner, they harvest magical power from starlight. It is also suggested, without evidence or support, that they are located at the meeting points of ancient lines of magical power; however, modern arcane arts have discovered no perceptible evidence of such lines of power.

Those with magical talents can draw magicka from Ayleid wells to restore their own reservoirs of magical power. No ritual or arcane knowledge is necessary, suggesting that these wells were designed to serve persons not skilled in the magical arts. Once drained, the wells replenish again only at magical midnight. Once recharged, they appear to radiate magical power back into the sky, which prompts some to theorize they are also objects with religious or magical ritual significance -- perhaps a means of offering magic back to the heavens.

Welkynd Stones [Aldmeris - "sky stone," "heaven stone"; literally, "sky child"] are pieces of cut and enchanted meteoric glass which apparently act as storage devices for magical power. A magical talent can restore his reseroirs of magicka from such stones. Alas, the means of restoring power to these stones may have been lost with the Ayleids. Currently, these objects simply crumble to dust after they have been used.

Great Welkynd Stones are exceptionally large pieces of enchanted meteoric glass. Scholars believe that at the heart of each ancient Ayleid city, a Great Welkynd Stone was the source of the settlement's magical enchantments. It may be that these great stones were linked to the lesser stones, restoring and maintaining their power. In any case, research on these Great Welkynd Stones is impossible, since all the known Ayleid ruins have been looted of their great stones, and no examples of these great stones are known to survive.

Another rare enchanted item found in Ayleid ruins is called a Varla Stone [Aldmeris - "star stone"]. Varla Stones are remarkably powerful, enabling untrained users to restore magical energy to any number of enchanted items. Because of their great value and utility, these items are also extremely rare, but since they are small and easily concealed, diligent explorers may still occasionally come across them in any Ayelid ruin.

Ayleid Wells. Welkynd Stones. Varla Stones. Consider, then, these marvels of magical enchantment. Are we then to conclude that the Ayleids were a superior race and culture? Did they so exceed us in art and craft that they mock the feeble powers of Third Era Wizards?

Never! The Ayleids were powerful, yes, and cunning, but they were neither good nor wise, and so they were struck down. Their works have passed from Nirn, save these rare and sparkling treasures. Their ancient cities are dark and empty, save for the grim revenants and restless spirits condemned forever to walk the halls, keeping their melancholy vigils over bones and dust.


The Amulet of Kings

Wenengrus Monhona

In the first years of the First Era, a powerful race of Elves called the Ayleids, or the Heartland High Elves, ruled central Tamriel with an iron hand. The high and haughty Ayleids relied on their patrons, the treacherous Daedra Lords, to provide armies of daedra and dead spirits; with these fearless magical armies, the Ayleids preyed without mercy upon the young races of men, slaughtering or enslaving them at their whim.

On behalf of the suffering human races, St. Alessia, the first in the line of Cyrodiils, sought the aid of Akatosh, the Dragon God of Time, and ruler of the noble Aedra. Akatosh, looking with pity upon the plight of men, drew precious blood from his own heart, and blessed St. Alessia with this blood of Dragons, and made a Covenant that so long as Alessia's generations were true to the dragon blood, Akatosh would endeavor to seal tight the Gates of Oblivion, and to deny the armies of daedra and undead to their enemies, the Daedra-loving Ayleids.

In token of this Covenant, Akatosh gave to Alessia and her descendants the Amulet of Kings and the Eternal Dragonfires of the Imperial City. Thus does Alessia become the first gem in the Cyrodilic Amulet of Kings. The gem is the Red Diamond in the middle of the Amulet. This is the Symbol of the Empire and later taken as the symbol of the Septim line. It is surrounded by eight other gems, one for each of the divines.

So long as the Empire shall maintain its worship of Akatosh and his kin, and so long as Alessia's heirs shall bear the Amulet of Kings, Akatosh and his divine kin maintain a strong barrier between Tamriel and Oblivion, so that mortal man need never again fear the devastating summoned hosts of the Daedra Lords.

But if the Empire should slacken in its dedication to the Nine Divines, or if the blood of Alessia's heirs should fail, then shall the barriers between Tamriel and the Daedric realms fall, and Daedra-worshippers might summon lesser Daedra and undead spirits to trouble the races of men.


Glories and Laments

Alexandre Hetrard

Glories and Laments
Among the Ayleid Ruins

Alexandre Hetrard


Having arrived at Gottlesfont Priory, halfway on the Gold Road between Skingrad and the Imperial City, I resolved to make a side trip to view the magnificent ruins of Ceyatatar, or "Shadow of the Fatherwoods' in the ancient Ayleid tongue. After many hours of difficult travel through tangled hawthorn hells and limberlosts, I was suddenly struck dumb by the aspect of five pure white columns rising from a jade-green mound of vines to perfect V-shaped arches and graceful capitals towering above the verdant forest growth. This spectacle caused me to meditate on the lost glories of the past, and the melancholy fate of high civilizations now poking like splinter shards of bone from the green-grown tumulus of time-swept obscurity.

Within the forest tangle I discovered an entrance leading down into the central dome of a great underground edifice once dedicated to Magnus, the God of Sight, Light, and Insight. Dimly lit by the faded power of its magical pools, the shattered white walls of the enclosure shimmered with a cold blue light.

The marble benches of the central plaza faced out across the surrounding waters to tall columns and sharp arches supporting the high dome. From the central island, stately bridges spanned the still pools to narrow walkways behind the columns, with broad vaulted avenues and limpid canals leading away through ever-deeping gloom into darkness. Reflected in the pools were the tumbled columns, collapsed walls, and riotous root and vine growth thriving the dark half-light of the magical fountains.

The ancient Ayleids recognized not the four elements of modern natural philosophy -- earth, water, air, and fire -- but the four elements of High Elf religion -- earth, water, air, and light. The Ayleids considered fire to be but a weak and corrupt form of light, which Ayleid philosophers identified with primary magical principles. Thus their ancient subterranean temples and sanctuaries were lit by lamps, globes, pools, and fountains of purest magic.

It was by these ancient, faded, but still active magics that I knelt and contemplated the departed glories of the long-dead Ayelid architects. Gazing through the glass-smooth reflections of the surrounding pools, I could see, deep below, the slow pulse, the waxing and waning of the Welkynd stones.

The chiefest perils of these ruins to the explorer are the cunning and deadly mechanisms devised by the Ayleids to torment and confound those would invade their underground sanctuaries. What irony that after these many years, these devices should still stand vigilant against those who would admire the works of the Ayleids. For it is clear... these devices were crafted in vain. They did not secure the Ayleids against their true enemies, which were not the slaves who revolted and overthrew their cruel masters, nor the were they the savage beast peoples who learned the crafts of war and magic from their Ayleid masters. No, it was the arrogant pride of their achievements, their smug self-assurance that their empire would last forever, that doomed them to fail and fade into obscurity.


The Last King of the Ayleids

Herminia Cinna

The Ayleids, or Heartland High Elves, ruled Cyrodiil in the long ages of Myth before the beginning of recorded history. One of the earliest recorded dates, in fact, is the Fall of White Gold Tower in 1E 243, which is commonly assumed to mark the end of the Ayleids.

Although Ayleid rule over all of Cyrodiil was indeed broken in 1E 243, this was only one of the most obvious stages near the end of a long decline. The first two centuries of the First Era saw increasing strife between the great Ayleid lords of Cyrodiil. Alessia appears to have taken advantage of a period of civil war to launch her uprising. Imperial historians have traditionally attributed her victory to intervention from Skyrim, but it appears that she had at least as much help from rebel Ayleid lords during the siege of White Gold Tower.

The popular image of the Ayleids as brutal slavemasters is based in fact, of course, but it is less well-known that a number of Ayleid princes continued to rule parts of Cyrodiil after 263, as vassals of the new Empress of Cyrodiil. This suggests either that Ayleid rule was not universally detested, or that Alessia and her successors were more pragmatic than is traditionally believed, or perhaps some of both.

In any event, excavations at a number of Ayleid sites show continued occupation and even expansion during the so-called Late Ayleid Period (1E 243 - c. 498). At first, many Ayleid lords continued to rule as vassals of the new human regime. In some cases, Ayleid supporters of Alessia were even rewarded with new lands taken from slain enemies. It is not clear to what extent human slavery continued under the Cyrodilic Empire. Humans continued to dwell in the Ayleid-ruled areas of Cyrodiil, but there is nothing definitive to show under what terms.

This was an uneasy relationship from the beginning, and was not destined to last long. Resentment at the continued presence of Ayleid nobles within the Empire was a contributing factor to the rise of the so-called Alessian Order founded by Maruhk. The first victims of the Alessians were the Ayleids of Cyrodiil. In the early 300s, the surviving Ayleid communities in human-ruled areas were obliterated one by one, the refugees temporarily swelling the power of the remaining Ayleid lordships.

Then in 361, the Alessians gained control of the Empire and enforced the Alessian Doctrines throughout its domain. The Ayleid lordships were abolished. Enforcement of this decree does not appear to have required much direct violence -- it seems that by this point the balance of power was so overwhelmingly against them, and their fate so long foreshadowed, that most of the remaining Ayleids simply left Cyrodiil, eventually being absorbed into the Elven populations of Valenwood and High Rock. Indeed, the rise of the Direnni Hegemony may be linked to this exodus of Ayleids from Cyrodiil (a connection so far little studied by historians).

Still, a remnant Ayleid population seems to have survived the rule of the Alessians, because we hear of "the last king of the Ayleids" joining the battle of Glenumbria Moors where the Dirennis decisively defeated the Alessians in 482. How this king's people survived the preceding century is unknown. We do not even know who they were, although recent research points to Nenalata as the possible resting place of this "last king." Unfortunately, in the current state of the Empire, funds are no longer available for proper scientific investigation of such extensive ruins, so the answer to these questions will have to be left to future generations.


Daughter of the Niben

Sathyr Longleat


Daughter of the Niben

Sathyr Longleat

Bravil is one of the most charming towns in Cyrodiil, sparkling in her simple beauty, illustrious by her past. No visit to the southern part of the Imperial Province is complete without a walk along Bravil's exciting river port, a talk with her friendly native children, and, of course, in the tradition of the village, a whispered word to the famous statue of the Lucky Old Lady.

Many thousands of years before the arrival of the Atmorans, the native Ayleid people had long lived in the vicinity of modern day Bravil. The Niben then, as now, provided food and transportation, and the village was even more populous than it is today. We are not certain what they called their region: as insular as they were, the word they used would be translated to simply mean "home." These savage Ayleids were so firmly entrenched that the Bravil region was one of the very last areas to be liberated by the Alessian army in the second century of the 1st era. Though little remains of that era culturally or archeologically, thank Mara, the tales of debauchery and depravity have entered into the realm of legends.

How the Ayleids were able to survive such a long siege is debated by scholars to this day. All, however, grant the honor of the victory to one of the Empress Alessia's centurions, a man called Teo Bravillius Tasus, the man for whom the modern town is named.

It was said he invaded the village no less than four times, after heavy resistance, but each time upon the morning dawning, all his soldiers within would be dead, murdered. By the time more centuria had arrived, the fortified town was repopulated with Ayleids. After the second successful invasion, secret underground tunnels were found and filled in, but once again, come morning, the soldiers were again dead, and the citizens had returned. After the third successful siege, legions were posted outside of the town, watching the roads and riverway for signs of attacks, but no one came. The next morning, the bodies of the invading soldiers were thrown from the parapets of town's walls.

Teo Bravillius Tasus knew that the Ayleids must be hiding themselves somewhere in the town, waiting until nightfall, and then murdering the soldiers while they slept. The question was where. After the fourth invasion, he himself led the soldiers in a thorough inspection of every corner, every shadow. Just as they were ready to give up, the great centurion noticed two curious things. High in the sheer walls of the town, beyond anyone's ability to climb, there were indentations, narrow platforms. And by the river just inside the town, he discovered a single footprint from someone clearly not wearing the Imperial boot.

The Ayleids, it seemed, had taken two routes to hide themselves. Some had levitated up to the walls and hidden themselves high above, and others had slipped into the river, where they were able to breathe underwater. It was a relatively easy task once the strange elves' even stranger hiding holes had been discovered to rout them out, and see to it that there were no more midnight assassinations of the Empress's troops.

It may seem beyond belief that an entire community could be so skilled in these spells hundreds and hundreds of years before the Mages Guild was formed to teach the ways of magicka to the common folk. There does, however, appear to be evidence that, just as the Psijics on the Isle of Artaeum developed Mysticism long before there was a name for it, the even more obscure Ayleids of southern Cyrodiil had developed what was to be known as the school of Alteration. It is not, after all, much of a stretch when one considers that other Ayleids at the time of Bravil's conquering and even later were shapeshifters. The community of pre-Bravil could not turn into beasts and monsters, but they could alter their bodies to hide themselves away. A related and useful skill, to be sure. But not so effective to save themselves in the end.

Very little is left of the Ayleid presence in Bravil of today, though archetectural marvels of other kinds are very evident. As beautiful and arresting as the Benevolence of Mara cathedral and the lord's palace are, no manmade structure in Bravil is as famous as the statue called The Lucky Old Lady.

The tales about the Lady and who she was are too numerous to list.

It was said she was born the illegitimate daughter of a prostitute in Bravil, certainly an inauspicious beginning to a lucky life. She was teased by the other children, who forever asked her who her father was. Every day, she would run back to her little shack in tears from their cruelty.

One day, a priest of Stendarr came to Bravil to do charitable work. He saw the weeping little girl, and when asked, she told him the cause of her misery: she didn't know who her father was.

"You have kind eyes and a mouth that tells no lies," replied the priest after a moment, smiling. "You are clearly a child of Stendarr, the God of Mercy, Charity, and Well-Earned Luck."

The priest's thoughtful words changed the girl forever. Whenever she was asked who her father was, she would cheerfully reply, "I am a child of Luck."

She grew up to be a barmaid, it was said, kind and generous to her customers, frequently allowing them to pay when they were able to. On a particularly rainy night, she gave shelter to a young man dressed in rags, who not only had no money to pay, but was belligerent and rude to her as she fed him and gave him a room. The next morning, he left without so much as a thank you. Her friends and family admonished her, saying that she had to be careful, he might have even been dangerous.

A week later, a royal carriage arrived in Bravil, with an Imperial prince within. Though he was scarcely reconizable, it was the same young man the Lady had helped. He apologized profusely for his appearance and behavior, explaining that he had been kidnapped and cursed by a band of witches, and it wasn't until later he had returned to his senses. The Lady was showered with riches, which she, of course, generously shared with all the people of Bravil, where she lived to a content old age.

No one knows when the statue to her was erected in the town square, or who the artist was, but it has stood there for thousands of years, since the first era. To this day, visitors and Bravillians alike go to the Lucky Old Lady to ask for her to bless them with luck in their travails.

Just one more charming aspect of the charming, and very lucky village of Bravil.